what were the goals of the allies gallipoli campaign
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what were the goals of the allies gallipoli campaign

The war of manoeuvre had ended and been replaced by trench warfare.

The landings never came close to achieving their goals. [105], On the afternoon of 27 April, the 19th Division, reinforced by six battalions from the 5th Division, counter-attacked the six Allied brigades at Anzac. British and French forces remained at Helles until 8-9 January 1916. [135] After the defeat of the counter-attack at Anzac in mid-May, the Ottoman forces ceased frontal assaults. [77] Scheduled for 23 April but postponed until 25 April due to bad weather, landings were to be made at five beaches on the peninsula. The final British attempt to resuscitate the offensive came on 21 August, in the Battle of Scimitar Hill and the Battle of Hill 60. The untenable nature of the Allied position was made apparent by a rainstorm on 26 November 1915. The Lone Pine Memorial commemorates Australians killed in the Anzac sector, as well as New Zealanders with no known grave or who were buried at sea, while the Lone Pine, Hill 60 and Chunuk Bair memorials commemorate New Zealanders killed at Anzac. [107] Hunter-Weston made a plan which proved overly complex and was poorly communicated to the commanders in the field.

In the aftermath of the Sari Bair offensive, the Allies tried to break through the Ottoman line north of Anzac, which was now linked up with the beachhead at Suvla. [e], Allegations were made that Allied forces had attacked or bombarded Ottoman hospitals and hospital ships on several occasions between the start of the campaign and September 1915. The renowned ANZAC spirit was born at Gallipoli the defining success achieved by the ANZACS. At Anzac, the diversionary Battle of Lone Pine, led by the Australian 1st Infantry Brigade, captured the main Ottoman trench line and diverted Ottoman forces but the attacks at Chunuk Bair and Hill 971 failed. [41] During the planning of the campaign, naval losses had been anticipated and mainly obsolete battleships, unfit to face the German fleet, had been sent. [188] Unlike the evacuation from Anzac Cove, Ottoman forces were looking for signs of withdrawal. Allied aircraft made reconnaissance flights, spotted for naval guns and conducted low-level bombing of Ottoman reserves as they were brought up to the battlefield. [138], In June, the seaplane carrier HMS Ben-my-Chree arrived and the Allied air effort increased from a squadron to No.

This changed the strategic situation, especially in the Middle East, where Ottoman forces now posed a direct threat to the Suez Canal – an important British shipping lane between Europe and Asia. By the time the New Zealanders returned to Anzac in November, the future of the campaign had been determined. [1] Ottoman commanders and senior German officers debated the best means of defending the peninsula. [70] The 19th Division (Kemal) and the 9th Division were placed along the Aegean coast and at Cape Helles on the tip of the peninsula. Total: 315,500[8][9], British Empire:160,790 (31,389 killed)[11] On 22 November the British decided to cut their losses and evacuate Suvla and Anzac.

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